Ammonium nitrate is an important chemical fertilizers , most countries have sizeable production capacity, a rich source of low prices. It can be directly related to some of the elemental explosives and flammable agents into various mixing explosives, blasting for industrial and military purposes. The earliest use of ammonium nitrate is mixed explosives , the largest amount of explosives in the two world wars , almost all belligerent extensive use of such explosives for filling nearly the range of shells, mortar shells and bombs , is in the United States during the invasion of the war , but also heavy use of ammonium nitrate explosive bombs filled with generic .
Explosive has the following advantages : extremely rich source of raw materials , low cost ; composed of simple, easy processing, manufacturing, use of existing production lines can be mass-produced civilian , or a small amount of change in technology, equipment that is capable of producing ; composition ratio may be properly selected to suit different requirements , you can do a combination of military and civilian , peacetime ; safety, manufacturing, transportation , storage and use are safe and reliable. The biggest drawback is its severe hygroscopicity , caking and lack of water resistance, which limits its application to a certain extent .
Nitrate explosive fight a wide variety of different classification methods. Use can be divided into industrial and military explosives, ammonium nitrate , ammonium nitrate explosives ; press components can be divided into ammonium nitrate explosives and explosive ammonium nitrate explosives monomer-free monomers containing explosives ; according to the physical properties of ammonium nitrate can be divided into water-resistant explosives and explosive non- water-resistant . Explosive industrial use generally be classified in accordance with the use of occasions , ammonium nitrate explosives into the rock , outdoor ammonium nitrate explosives, mines and other explosives, nitric acid . According to the composition of nitrate explosives can be divided into : Explosive containing flammable material , ammonium nitrate explosive containing nitro compounds , metal powder, ammonium nitrate explosives, including urea nitrate and ANFO explosives and so on. The following categories were introduced by the composition and properties of each formulation and use .
Explosive containing combustibles
Such explosives are ammonium nitrate , TNT and carbonaceous fuel powder as a main component and having a sense of a mechanical mixture of the detonator , the carbonaceous fuel wood flour , plant stem , stem, peel and fruit powder , coal powder, fuel oil, . Its composition also contains a sensitizer , anti- caking agents , curing agents or suppressor agent. Such explosives are divided into groups of ammonium nitrate and TNT explosion , which is also known as ammonium nitrate explosive , the density of such explosives is generally 0.95 ~ 1.10g/cm3. When the explosion density greater than this value, the initiation sensitivity decreased , can not even put out or produce explosive detonation phenomena . Such explosives detonation velocity of 3000 ~ 3500m / s. By adjusting the size of the explosive power of TNT to control content . TNT TNT explosive content used in China : an open-air type for open-air explosion of 3% to 10% ; used in coal mine , gas and coal dust explosion hazard conditions for 10% to 15% ; for rock blasting rock type 7% to 8%.
Advantages of ammonium nitrate explosive is: simple production process, product quality reproducible, high initiation sensitivity , available detonator , abundant raw materials, low prices. The disadvantage is : Since hygroscopic caking of ammonium nitrate , which can not be used in wet environments and water blasting operations are not conducive to long-term storage and preservation , especially in the wet season, more difficult to produce , in addition, TNT toxic dust , the breed has become so explosive eliminated in the international market.
Ammonium nitrate explosives manufacturing process, usually round grind method, that pressure on the wheel mill mixing made . Also some use of air drying method , which uses air drying ammonium nitrate mixed with drugs and spiral technology , the law , large output, high efficiency , but the quality is not as good as round grind method is stable.